Shoulder Squeeze

Knee Squeeze


Knee Press

Of sweat and tears training toward the ultimate muscular and refined physique and the

V   Veventual leveling off to maintaining that creation? Let me introduce the gung-ho men and women of iron to something more relaxing: the union of mind and body as one projects the inner strength and peace that we so deeply desire but that is so elusive to maintain amid the stress and responsibilities of everyday living. I, with the assistance of my instructor, have studied and educated myself on the self-relaxation techniques of yoga. 1 have discovered the sensation of balancing and toning my body while exploring the depths of my inner self.


An introduction by Mary Roberts



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Instinctive Training Principle to determine how valuable it is to my own unique system. Most bodybuilders think of the Instinctive Principle only in terms of training, but it's also extremely valuable when evaluating nutrition variables.

It takes most bodybuilders six months to a year of I monitoring the body's subtle biofeedback signals to master the Instinctive Training Principle, but all the effort is worthwhile. With good training instinct, you can rapidly evaluate any new training or nutrition variable That saves a lot of time you

might otherwise .have wasted going

down dead-end streets.

I try to keep my nutritional philosophy

as scientific as possible. My wife Alyse has a

university degree in health and leisure,

which involved a hell of a lot of nutrition

study. Recently, she has been programming

as many nutritional variables as possible into

a computer to generate a profile of my ideal

nutritional program.

Some of the variables are data on the

body's nutritional requirements to gain,

(Continued on page 190)


"Year-round I eat six times a day"

nutrition information     ^ was available to me so I had to formulate much of my nutritional philosophy through trial and error. I'd read about some new dietary practice — or hear about something from other bodybuilders in the gym — and would try it out. Usually, I could tell quickly if the variable worked for me. If it worked well, I kept it in the dietary rotation.

Back in South Africa my training partner, Ralph Piers, helped me a lot with my

early dietary

efforts. But since

then I've relied on muscle &

fitness (and more recently flex) for

nutrition information. Sure, I'd pick up a

nugget of knowledge here and there, but

I learned much more from reading.

Whenever I have a new nutrition

variable to try out, I rely on the Weider




During the few months I've been National Champion I've learned that young bodybuilders are tremendously curious about eating to win. At some of my training seminars nearly half the questions are aimed at learning how I've eaten to build such terrific muscle mass in just five years and how I diet to get ripped at more than 230 pounds bodyweight.

Contemporary bodybuilders realize the importance of proper diet. Without it, all

the training in the world won't build a contest-winning, massive, ripped-to-shreds physique. I believe that diet and training are a 50-50 proposition offseason, with the importance of diet rising to 70-75% of the battle as a competition approaches. I truly am what I eat, and so are you! Much has been learned about sports nutrition in the last few years. Five years ago, though, comparatively little

my quads, I currently work hamstrings first in my leg program. 1 begin my routine with lying leg curls. I don't lie completely flat on the machine, but keep only my thighs and hips flat on the padded surface. My stomach and chest are arched up off of the machine, my elbows supporting my torso in position while my hands grasp the edge of the bench in front of me. 1 have discovered that I can achieve an outrageous hamstrings contraction in this position while isolating my buttocks from the movement. 1 think you'll make the same discovery if you try this little secret yourself.

As on every exercise, I begin with a warm-up set on my leg curls, using a light weight for about 15 easy reps. Convention has it that such a warm-up physically prepares the working joints and muscles for the heavier exercise to come. I also do a warm-up set to get my mind focused on the area I'm trying to isolate.

Counting the warm-up sets, I do about eight total sets of leg curls, varying the weights and reps instinctively. Here are the weight/rep combos I used in my most recent leg workouts (I rest about 60 seconds between sets): Set Number       Reps       Poundage



in turn has allowed

me to make steady

— albeit  unspectacular  — gains in

mass and muscle quality over the past

few years.

If you talked to a few national-level physique judges, you would learn that I've become a winner because I've always attempted to retain balanced physical proportions as I gradually increased my overall muscle mass. Given the current climate in bodybuilding, it's impossible to win the bigger titles without nearly perfect proportional balance.

Your best tool for bringing a lagging muscle group up to the level of the rest of your physique is the Weider Muscle Priority Training Principle. With this principle, you bomb any lagging body-part with maximum intensity first in a workout. This is the only time you will have at your disposal full reserves of both physical and mental energy for all-out specialized high-intensity training of a weak area.

Because I feel my thigh biceps development is marginally behind that of

"It's hard to believe that I used to have a pair of legs so skinny that all of the girls made fun of me. Look at how huge and ripped my quads are now!"

50     Muscle & Fitness

"Three more now. Push it!"

These words have become just as familiar to me as the question, "Do you lift weights?" Even more familiar are the feelings of pain and exhaustion so common when training thighs. It hurts when you train legs hard.

My familiarity with the pain barrier is the one factor that contributed most to making me an NPC National Champion. The ability to smash past the pain barrier is the difference between success and failure when training legs. I won't kid you and say it's easy to build massive, ripped-up legs. Make up your mind early to smash through the pain barrier every time you train leg biceps and quads, because a hard leg workout will be the most painful and exhausting workout of all — but the most satisfying.

When I started bodybuilding, I was very thin and had particularly puny legs. I can remember the girls in my high school gym class laughingly calling me "Chicken Legs." (I hope at least one of them is reading this article!) It hurt to be known as "Chicken Legs," but that derisive comment provided the spark that led to a burning desire for great legs. Coupled with advanced Wcidcr Training Principles, that helped me build worldclass legs.

In order to allow plenty of recuperation time between thigh workouts, I currently follow a three-on-one-off system. My favorite bodypart groupings right now are chest-back on Day 1, legs by themselves on Day 2 and shoulders-arms on Day 3- Of course Day 4 is a full rest day. Calves and abs are bombed more or less every other day. By doing each major muscle group only twice each eight days, I have been able to avoid overtraining, which



Exercises photographed by Robert Reilf at Gold's Gym. Venice. Calif.

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Drugs In Bodybuilding

By James Nickas, PharmD


Althougli a participant and advocate of bodybuilding, I sometimes question the direction the sport is taking. Those who have followed bodybuilding over the years know that competitors today are larger and more muscular than those of the past. Judging trends have mirrored this evolution, with massive-ness and muscular density emerging as major criteria for victory. Many bodybuilders are obsessed with becoming as massive as possible, whatever the cost. Judging trends have encouraged this obsession.

Today's more scientific exercise and dietary principles have contributed to the larger look in bodybuilding, but use of growth-promoting drugs has had the greatest impact on the sport. Anabolic steroids are used by many competitive bodybuilders to stimulate protein synthesis, increase lean muscle mass and enhance muscular definition. When combined with heavy training and proper diet, anabolic steroids can stimulate significant muscle growth in many individuals. These desired effects have led to widespread use of anabolic compounds in competitive bodybuilding. Other chemicals such as growth hormone, thyroid hormone and even

"Taking a foreign substance to enhance performance is like cheating on an

exam. It is a farce to create the

illusion that bodybuilding is such a

healthy sport when in fact many of its

heroes are walking pharmacies."

insulin have been used by bodybuilders in hopes of achieving an edge over competitors. Fast articles in muscle & FITNESS have discussed the potential complications of using these potent chemicals.

One can argue that it is the right of any individual to do what he pleases with his body. As a health professional first and recreational bodybuilder second, I do not advocate the use of any drug to enhance athletic performance. I would much rather see excellence achieved naturally through hard work and dedication. Taking a foreign substance to enhance performance is like cheating on an exam. It is unfair, inconsistent with sporting ethics and should not be permitted. Unfortunately, this philosophical argument against drug use is weakened when bodybuilders who take steroids preach that they are winning with their current approach and making money at it. This is where the problem lies.

Bodybuilders and other athletes in highly visible sports must look beyond themselves and consider the influence they have on admirers who may be emulating them. Bodybuilding has traditionally been associated with health; thus, competitors in the sport have an obligation to promote this image. // is ci farce to create the illusion that bodybuilding is such a healthy sport when in fact many of its heroes are walking pharmacies. The focus should be on how to achieve optimal physical and cardiovascular conditioning, not on the use of drugs for bodybuilding. It is possible to develop a striking physique without administration of foreign substances. The idea of taking chemicals to look better is inconsistent with a healthy image.

As a writer and consultant in the sport of bodybuilding I receive many inquiries on a variety of health issues. Perhaps the most disturbing trend has been the large number of questions from young people regarding anabolic steroid use and how to obtain these substances. They often state, "I heard so-and-so takes steroids and I want to look just like him or her." It sounds (Continued on page 203)

Muscle & Fitness      45

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things you never could before, without dangerous drugs.

The substances are collectively called ergogenic aids, an appropriate-moniker. Ergo stems from the Greek word for work, and genesis indicates a beginning — so these are work-producing aids. While some researchers dismiss their effects as statistically insignificant, many others believe that

There's a revolution going on in sports nutrition, and you're right in the middle of it.

As in any upheaval of the status quo, there are a lot of unknowns and some-false starts. But it's a fact that science is in the process of isolating all kinds of substances that can improve your performance, enhance your training efforts and give you the chance to do



Nutrition Vs Drugs

By Frederick C. Hatfield, PhD

even the slightest edge, in concert with sound training practices, can make a world of difference in the quest for physical excellence.

Like any explorer setting out for new frontiers, you need to keep an open mind and an attitude of caution. Some-so-called ergogenic aids may be nothing but rubbish, others border on the miraculous in their effects. Some will work for you but not for the next guy. And don't make any of them part of your regimen without the advice of a competent sports physician, sports scientist or coach. Sift through the following information, then, in the spirit of a quest. Controlled scientific studies have yet to prove or disprove the efficacy of these substances, and until they do, none of this is gospel. What you're about to read signals the genesis of physical achievement without resorting to potentially dangerous drugs.


When MUSCLE & FITNESS and SPORTS FITNESS published articles about ino-Sine last year, our phones rang off the hook and the mail-room staff demanded raises. The response was great because this stuff is great. Inosine works . . . safely, quickly and powerfully.

Japanese researchers discovered in--osine, a purine nucleotide, but it was the Russians who found that it gives an energy boost to training athletes. Now it's available in tablet form as an over-the-counter supplement.

(Continued on page 181)

Shotgunning supplements down the hatch may be gone forever. Bodybuilders pick and choose the supplements they need, and one of them should be eleutherococcus — Siberian ginseng — in the form of tea.


Putting a full-scale gym operation together is an awesome task, even for a veteran like Joe Gold. That's why Joe arid the owners/operators of more than one hundred other top fitness facilities throughout the U.S. and Canada haveyre-lied on Pro*Body Fitness to ensure the success of/their venture.

The team of experts at Pro-Body does more than give opinions. They work: Searching the industry for the equipment that best suits your goals, budget and clientele. Obtaining discounts that are often better than factor' reps can offer. Matching you up with the most afford^ able financing packages. Training your staff. Setting up your grand-opening and pulling together your whole operation.

And Pro#Body's expertise isn't limited to hardcore
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Call the experts at Pro'Body Fitness and discover how easy the tough task of starting a gym can be.

Joe Gold has some good advice for anyone who's designing, building, equipping or updating a gym or health club:




mil ill

How to Increase Muscle Tone and Why

By Gary Glum, DC   Founding Director, The Institute of Neuromuscular Reeducation


Successful athletes, whether body-builders, football players or any others, have to have a fairly stoic attitude toward pain. There's no way you're going to become a champion, or to do your part in helping your team to win, if you fold up every time you feel some physical pain, or if you don't do everything in your power to come back from injury as soon as possible. And, let's face it, a serious athlete can't continually push his or her body to its limits during workouts, or allow it to be subjected to constant battering in contact sports, without occasionally becoming the victim of some sort of

Luis Freitas gets the once-over from Dr. Gary Glum. Dr. Glum explains the best methods to prevent muscle injury and to treat muscle soreness.



The sure sign of injury is pain. Pain is nature's warning signal that something is wrong with your body. Champion athletes, who have been known to have incredibly high thresholds of pain, have demonstrated the ability to continue to function with physical problems that would put the average individual in traction. Nonetheless, if you have an injury and continue to put stress on the injured area, you are inevitably making that injury worse and prolonging the inevitable treatment and rehabilitation period to follow.

Faced with the pain of real injury, you may be able to grit your teeth and continue to function—for a while. But you won't be able to "work through" or "work off the injury. You just keep making it worse.

This month I would like to address a common pain: the pain of soreness following an intense workout.

Everyone has had the experience of going through a hard workout and waking up stiff and sore the next day. Most of the time the soreness reaches its peak the second day after the workout. This is especially true if you are using muscles you aren't accustomed to using, or if you have lost condition-ingxdue to a layoff in training and are resuming intense training. This kind of soreness is not localized. It's not the same as with a pulled muscle, for example, which will generally cause acute pain in one specific place.

Muscle soreness is a sign of minor damage to muscle fibers, but it doesn't have to prevent you from going ahead with your workouts. However, when you are feeling stiff and sore, you have to make certain adjustments in your workouts. The most important thing is to warm up longer and extra carefully. This is exactly the case in which "working through the pain" is the right thing to do. Lightly working the area floods it with blood and literally warms it up by raising the temperature in the adjacent tissue.

Most bodybuilders don't feel as if they've accomplished anything unless they feel some soreness the next day. However, since they are training on a regular schedule and are in terrific condition, the soreness they experience is (Continued on page 179)

Muscle & Fitness     41








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Keys to Running a Successful Club

By Mike Hays and Joe Dillon




Do you run (or are you thinking of starting) a gym or health club? Lots of Al&F readers are i/i this expanding business, and many of yon have written to ask its questions about how to operate a club. "All right," I thought, "I'll find some guys who have the answers," and here they are. Mike Hays and Joe Dillon are partners in the Orange County California firm, Pro-Body fitness. They consult with club owners and would-be club owners. They recommend equipment, location, size and type of facilities everything you need to know. If yon have questions you d like to see Alike and Joe answer in this column, write to them at: Pro-Body Fitness, I Hartford. Irvine. California 92714.

—Joe Weider

Q: / will be opening a serious bodybuilding gym. My workout area will be 5.000 square feet. How much "free weight"(plates, dumbbells, bars, etc.) should I buy?

A: Free weight brands vary in accuracy, bar tensile strength and knurlings. Shop for reputable manufacturers such as Ivanko, Sonato, Cemco, Pacific, York, etc.

Olympic plates: For serious bodybuilding, use 1,500 pounds per 1,000 square feet as a good rule of thumb, or

Both Joe Weider and Joe Gold

recommend skilled consultants if

you plan on opening a fitness center.


7,500 pounds for 5,000 square feet. Check "burrs," size of hole consistency, design and weight accuracy.

Dumbbells: Again, for serious bodybuilding. five to 125 pounds in five-pound increments, 130 to 150 in 10-pound increments. If you're like many gym owners these days, you might consider another set from 15 to 6() pounds, as these are the most used sets.

Bars: Olympic bars vary considerably in quality. Educate yourself as to what is on the market. Stress tests on bars will tell you how much a bar can hold and still maintain an exact line, that is, not bend. How many you need will depend upon the equipment pieces that require one; you'll need

one per piece. Don't try to get by with less and risk injury to your members by haying them move bars from piece to piece. Use high-stress test bars for your heavy areas: squat, deadlift, bench press. There are many 1,000-pound stress tested bars on the market. You can get by with lower stress test bars for areas where poundages aren't so demanding.

Q: / keep hearing the term "powder coating" when talking about the finish on equipment. What exactly is powder coating?

A: Powder coating is the most popular method of finishing equipment. It is a baked-on epoxy, 3-4 millimeters thick, with a high gloss. It is very durable and easy to maintain. All it requires is a daily wipe-down with a damp cloth.

Chrome is the most durable finish, but is extremely expensive and hard to maintain. It requires continual chrome polish and buffing. Powder coating is almost as durable, but is much less expensive and easier to keep up. Powder coating is sprayed onto the magnetized surface of the steel in a dry powder form. It is then baked like a piece of pottery. The resulting surface is very tough.

The down side is that, if it's not

properly done, it can literally peel off

(Continued on page 112)

Muscle & Fitness     39

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Victory is a team effort.

That's why I've made

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superstars part of my

nutritional program!"

"When I'm hitting those powerful, beef-intensive poses onstage at the Mr. Olympia, a lot of people think I'm up there all alone. Well, it's not so. I always have a team behind me—Joe Weider's team of amino acid superstars! They've formed a large part of the nutritional support for my rugged, Mr. Olympia-style training and cutting-up regimen. Three years in a row!

"Joe's Anabolic Mega-Pak!M is the team's leader. It's a definite all-star, providing ornithine, arginine and essential amino acids, coupled with vitamins, minerals and the metabolic activators that help them all work together. I take Anabolic in the morning to augment the protein foods I take in at breakfast.

"I never let a day go by—whether I'm zeroing in on the Mr. Olympia competition or taking a recuperative post-contest break—without taking my Anabolic Mega-Pak.

"Mid-morning, when my body's hungry for more protein, but it's too early for lunch, I reach for the blender, one of Joe's super protein powders, and Dynamic Life Essence! I like the powder form because I can spoon it right in, but Life Essence comes in capsules, too. Life Essence is an impressive source of pure, free-form amino acids, without the bulk, calories and fats of meat. Free-form amino acids digest easily, too, which makes it simpler for my body to derive nourishment from them.

"Sometimes, just for variety, I turn my body's amino acid needs over to Joe's Dynamic Bodybuilding Blocks™. This no-nonsense supplement supplies me with the "essential eight" amino acids my body requires but can't manufacture on its own. Like Life Essence, Dynamic Bodybuilding Blocks go great with mid-morning or afternoon snacks. Sometimes I take them before a workout, or anytime I need some amino acids but want to avoid loading up my digestive system with a lot of heavy, fat-laden protein foods. Joe's amino acid supplements help keep

my nutritional needs satisfied, easily and conveniently, so I can keep my mind on training.

"But you know, for a guy like me who's always on the road or in the gym, it isn't always easy to get the amino acids I need. That's why I always take along Joe's Amino Assets chewables. I pack them in my briefcase, workout bag and suitcase, so I can pop a few in my mouth whenever and wherever I feel the urge for an amino kick. They taste great, and they give me something to munch on that's more beneficial than a candy bar!

"Take it from Mr. Olympia '84, '85 and '86: For the best body possible, rely on heavy training, eat four to five small, nutritious meals each day, get plenty of rest and recuperation, and get Joe Weider's amino acid team behind you."

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Eating For Your First Contest

ByCorinnaEverson, Ms. Olympia


Eating for your first contest doesn't have to be a mystery. You don't need a Ouija board! Just follow Ms. Olympia's plan.

The most confusing aspect of bodybuilding is how one should use the table to prepare for a contest. Despite a plethora of so-called gurus or trainers, who all have their own techniques for muscularity, bodybuilders entering their first contest lack straightforward and accurate information. Unfortunately, many first-time bodybuilders end up lost in a maze of catch phrases. Believe me, I've made my share of mistakes too.

In late 1979,1 was preparing for my first contest, the Ms. Mid-America in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. I only had three months to get ready for the show and I didn't know a thing about proper eating. It seems fitting now that I will deliver a lecture on this very subject in Milwaukee on May 3 in connection with the NPC USA Teens, Collegiates, Masters Championships and Milwaukee Grand Prix. I now am considered an expert on diet, eight years later!

Back then, I was not an expert and Jeff, who was then my boyfriend, wasn't either. I made the same mistakes most beginners do. Three months before the 1979 contest I was in pretty good shape, weighing about 140 pounds. I had retired from track, but I was training hard with the weights so my muscularity was good. Like everyone else, I thought I had to diet to get cut. Since then, of course, I've learned that dieting is always the wrong thing to do!

Diet is a dirty word. Diet implies deprivation. Deprivation is bad. What any bodybuilder has to do is learn to eat right and train hard and not necessarily eat less. If you have to eat less to get in shape, you are not ready to enter a contest!

I also believed (erroneously) that I had to change my high-carbohydrate diet to a low-carb diet. When I cut both my calories and carbohydrates, I lost hard-earned muscle size without gaining commensurate muscularity or definition. I dropped about eight pounds and was too small (and not more defined) at 130 pounds. Luckily, everyone else made the same kind of dumb mistakes and I won the contest. However, I certainly wasn't near my best.

I continued to believe the propaganda of the diet wizards — lowering carbs and calories until 1983 and 1984, when my friends convinced me to compete at a heavier body-weight. I now compete at 146 pounds. This is quite a bit different from 132 pounds, which I weighed in my contests

from 1979 through 1983. (I was even lighter than that in the Couples America in 1981 but that was after my blood clot.) Physiologically, if your diet is balanced calorically with your work expenditure and you suddenly drop your caloric intake, it is impossible to maintain your present muscle mass. No matter what you do, the moment you lower your calories, you start mobilizing muscle to supply energy. It's unfortunate, but your body actually likes fat and tends to fight efforts to lose it!

Ask any bodybuilder. The biggest problem in the game seems to be maintaining muscle while dieting to get cut

for a show. Sometimes, in an effort to gain definition, bodybuilders actually lose it! My advice is to train yourself into a state of physiological equilibrium three or four months before a show. You should be no more than 4-6 pounds over your projected bodyweight (for instance, if you are trying to meet a weight classification). Most of this weight should be stored water.

You should be training very hard, concentrating on putting all your energy into the weights and not muscle-wasting aerobics. Although aerobics burn fat, you will never see a person who does a lot of aerobics with good muscle size. In fact, if you want to ensure that you won't gain muscle, do a lot of aerobics. It works.

Aerobics should be used the last three weeks before a contest to fine-tune the muscles and to control subcutaneous water. Train hard and at a good pace. You should hardly be resting between sets, but still be putting at least 16 hours a week in. Your carbohydrates should be high and in the form of breads, pasta, rice, potatoes and some fruits and vegetables. Eliminate table salt, refined sugars, red meat, dairy products and all alcohol, including wine. Protein should come from supplements, turkey, egg whites and tuna. Drink a lot of water.

Six weeks before your contest change your training routine completely. No sense going stale now. Increase the amount of fresh but low-calorie fruits in your diet. I suggest peaches, strawberries and nectarines. Really try to eliminate all fat. Keep your calories up and blast away.

One week before your show, you should be hard without having lost any muscle size. Your fat stores will have

(Continued on page 179)

Muscle & Fitness      35

/*       '"*■


per rbs

ent which helps transport (long-chain) fatty acids for use as energy. But if you avoid milk and meats [major sources of L-Carni-

Fat contains nine calories gram—that's more than ca or protein! Butfatisa double edged sword; it can providt energy for intense workouts or it can turn against you, clogging arteriesand ruining your definition. INTRODUCING JOEWEIDER'S L-CARNITINE!

L-Carnitine is a nutri-

lej or train intensely, your body's requirement for additional L-Carnitine could increase. Muscular weakness may be a sign of an L-Carnitine deficiency, which decreases the body's ability to utilize fat for energy.

But be warned—only pure L-Carnitine can help metabolize fat intoenergy. Supplements labeled D-, or DL-Carnitine, or simply Carnitine may be unusable forms which can cause muscle weakness. L-Carnitine is more expensive, but Joe Weider wouldn't put his name on a Carnitine supplement unless it's pure and natural.




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Sports Clinics

By Joe Weider   Trainer of Champions since 1936

The Master Blaster — Joe Weider himself — gives popular bodybuilder Tom Platz a firsthand lesson in his latest flexibility techniques which were reported by the Weider Research Group.

All over the world there are clinics. One clinic does research on cancer, another on cardiac function. There are eye clinics, fitness clinics, chiropractic clinics and medical clinics. Most of them are excellent in their respective research endeavors and contribute significantly to the betterment of mankind.

By their nature, however, each of these laboratories is limited. They're limited because of the narrow scope of the research they do. They're limited

because of the limited funds at their disposal. And they're limited because no small group of scientists—however brilliant they are—can possibly know as much as all the other scientists combined.

There are clinics and laboratories around the world dedicated to helping athletes improve their performance capabilities. These laboratories suffer under the same lamentable—but understandable—limitations as all the rest: limited brainpower, resources and scope. The result is that the research that emanates from these laboratories, while helpful and well done, is of limited value to athletes and coaches.

What's needed is a unified effort of scientists from all over—and from many sport-related disciplines—to get together and put all of these research findings into some form of a coherent whole.

Only then will there be a body of knowledge that is unified and dovetailed in such a way that it will be useful on a large scale for athletes, coaches and other scientists. One lab can't do it all. But all the labs can, provided

there is an effort to unify the sum of their knowledge.

Through the years, I have tried my best to do this. However, it has only been recently that my efforts have begun to pay off. I've always tried to provide you with the best training advice, the best products and the best nutritional substances that science could offer. I did this by picking the brains of the experts—the scientists, the great coaches and the champion athletes— and using that information in a collective sense.

Much of our recent work has not yet been publicized. I intend to embark on a massive effort that will cost millions

of dollars, many thousands of man-hours and employ the best brains in the world of sports training. And I intend to bring the data from this effort to you on a monthly basis from now on.

Here are some of the projects currently under way:

Weider Health & Fitness is working with such scientists as Dr. Peter Lemon of Kent State University in exploring the exact nature and extent of the biochemical efficacy of my Anabolic Mega Paks. As part of a settlement agreement with the Federal Trade Commission, we are providing the funding for Dr. Lemon's research effort. We want to know firsthand what the benefits and limitations of this product are, and how they are provided on a biochemical level. Only in this way can we continue to improve this product—or any other product, for that matter—so you benefit.

Dr. James Skinner, the famous exercise physiologist from Arizona State University, has research pending in which the exact needs athletes and bodybuilders have for protein will finally be uncovered. This, we feel, will be a landmark study, and Weider Health & Fitness will do all that's possible to fund and encourage this kind of research effort. Again, the ultimate benefactor will be you.

Yet another exciting research endeavor is being considered that will elucidate the role of amino acids in training. The eminent scientist Dr. Paul Mole of the University of California at Davis plans to use nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in collecting his historic data. Weider Health & Fitness will play a role in seeing to it that this sort of research becomes an ongoing function of this company, and—once again—you will benefit greatly in your training efforts.

Much of this research is expensive. As part of our agreement with Dr. Peter Lemon, we've funded the purchase of two very sophisticated pieces of equipment that will remain at Kent State University for future research projects: a nitrogen analyzer and an ultra-cold freezer. We'll go to all extremes to make meaningful, accurate research data available so your training efforts will be rewarding.

These are but a few of the projects (Continued on page 170)

The 760 ex

order code: X760

The 460 rm (with Electronics)

order code: R460


But first we've got to shatter two myths. Myth #1: Exercise has to hurt to be effective.

Not true. It doesn't have to become a career or be inconvenient either. With Joe Weider's new high-tech rowers and bikes, you'll burn fat and calories, tone muscles, and strengthen your heart and lungs at home. Sure, there are less-expensive bikes and rowers, but they don't offer the comfort, control, stability, and fine construction of our ex/rm Series. Joe Weider went the extra mile in designing his bikes and rowers so you'll enjoy your exercise—and get more out of it. Myth #2: Being a few pounds ^^.   overweight is okay. ^^k Sorry, no. Even ten extra 1 pounds is a strain your m body can do without. To /   prove it, try carrying a ten /    pound sack of potatoes K'^^ around the house for an I hour. Imagine what that kind of actual excess weight is doing to your heart, bone structure, and energy level as you go through your active day. A Weider bike or rower can help you lose those pounds now—while it's easy—before they become a burden you can't shake. The Weider ex and rm Series. Four feature-filled tools for sculpting the perfect body.

Full-function electronics:

Timer with audio signal-Counter-Tempo.


The 450rm

order code: R450

• Deluxe non-slip foam grips.

Heavy-duty steel and aluminum tubmg frame


We're out to change the American Weigh.

I steel frame. Extra-wide stabilizer bars.

America's Total Fitness Company





Walking is the new "in" conditioning activity. Ex-runners are advised to walk to rehabilitate injuries and keep in shape. Sedentary or elderly people walk to lose weight and get necessary exercise. In fact, it is one of the safest and most effective forms of exercise. Its also one of the most flexible; it can be adjusted to fit the needs of people who are partially disabled or in otherwise poor physical condition, as well as those who are physically fit.

Walking, when done at a brisk rate. is very effective for developing the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, collectively known as the cardiorespiratory system. Without proper functioning of these systems you will never be able to carry on many of the activities commonly encountered during the normal working day or to sustain minimum fitness requirements. Walking is also very important in the prevention of heart disease.

The amount of cardiorespiratory development that you receive from your walking will depend upon how fast and how long you walk. The faster and further you go. the greater will be the development. However, when you're first getting Started, speed and distance will be determined by your physical (Continued on page 174)

most effete

ichael Yessis, PhD




Be some body.

    Introducing Slim & Trim™ The great

Introducing Slim & Trim. The great tasting new diet shake made from protein-rich tofu.


As a complete 225 calorie meal, Slim & Trim satisfies your appetite deliciously. So you take weight off and keep it off. Without starving yourself.

Each serving provides a healthy supply of nutrients, including half the recommended daily allowance of calcium. And Slim & Trim with tofu is so creamy smooth, it's hard to believe it mixes instantly with water.

In three delicious flavors: Vanilla Cookie? Chocolate Sundae™ and Strawberry Creme™ Look for non-dairy, cholesterol-free Slim & Trim in fine health food and nutrition stores. If not available, call 1-800-441-3535.



The Great Glandular Scam

By Michael Colgan, PhD

Throughout history, man has nourished the myth that dining on certain bodyparts somehow conveys the function of those parts to the diner. In ancient Greece, it was thought that by eating the heart of a mighty enemy, you added his strength to your own. In more recent times, African hunters ate the hearts of lions to increase their own courage. And there have been suggestions that the brains of learned professors at their demise should be minced and fed to their graduate classes, thereby improving the intellect of their best students.

Such beliefs have spawned a whole industry dealing in glandulars, that is, food supplements manufactured from animal glands, usually raw and freeze-dried. Health-food stores abound with booklets extolling the virtues of adrenal tissue for stress, pituitary for growth hormone, testicles for testosterone, pancreas for digestion, heart for better blood flow, hypothalamus for strength, thyroid for muscle mass. Every one of these supplements is a scam. Some manufacturers claim that the glands "communicate" information on function to the "target gland" of the person who takes them, much like the myth that eating a lion's heart increases courage. In some way unknown to science, this information is claimed to enhance the function of the gland.

Adrenal Fatigue Symptoms

Glandular information would have to be coded genetically or as a specifically constructed protein. There is a possibility for information transfer only if the gland tissue is injected into the body. In fact, studies by Dr. A. Kment in Germany showed that some radioactively tagged atoms of glandulars do make their way to "target organs." These studies are widely quoted by manufacturers of oral glandulars, who usually fail to mention that Kment's work was all with injected gland tissue. There is not a single scientific study showing any effect of an oral glandular supplement.

Standard texts on biochemistry such as the Williams and Lansford Encyclopedia of Biochemistry show that oral glandular tissue is completely broken down by human digestion into its constituent amino acids. Even if the genetic information were compatible with human genes, which it isn't, it is totally destroyed by digestion. Genes

are made of protein and their information is coded in amino acid sequences that digestion completely wipes out.

Any other possible information coded in gland protein structures is similarly destroyed. Not a molecule gets through. Which is somewhat lucky for us, as there is no chance at all of developing a whopping pair of bull's gonads — or worse — growing horns and tail.

Seriously, though, if any foreign protein does enter the body, it is immediately attacked and destroyed by the immune system. That's why we have such problems with heart transplants. Or maybe the glandular boys know something that the best surgeons in the world don't.

The cannier manufacturers don't kill their credibility by babbling about information transfer. Instead they vaguely discuss the hormone contents of the glands. Testicles do contain testostrone, (Continued on page 164)

Do glandular supplements really work? What's the difference between eating steak and digesting glandulars?




your body recuperate, and need that because I another workout to go! An hour before my evening workout I eat a piece of fruit with a glass of Carbo-Energizer. This gives me energy for my training session. After my workout I again take 6-10 capsules of Life Essence with water. For dinner, I eat a meal full of valuable nutrients to feed my hungry body. In the middle of the evening I snack on another Muscle Builder protein drink. Just before hitting the sack, I take the evening part of Aminobolic P.M. and get a good night's sleep. Sleep is vital if I'm going to hit the gym hard again the next day! Try my plan on for size! It's the one I used to win the title!"

"Weider supplements have been the cornerstone of my dietary success. Here's how I put them to work for me: I start my day with a balanced breakfast fortified with a protein drink composed of 2 tablespoons of Muscle Builder, one teaspoon of Life Essence powder and fresh juice or skim milk. With this I take one Megabolic pak to give me minerals and vitamins. One hour later I'm in the gym for the first workout.

After, when the demands of my body are high, I take 6-10 Life Essence capsules with water. An hour later, with lunch, I take the afternoon part of Aminobolic P.M. pak. It's designed to help



Inspiration And Motivation

By Betty Weider


Rachel McLish and Betty Weider show what weight training can do for women at any age.

I receive many letters from readers of my column, and read each and every one of them. I answer as many of your letters as I can, either here in the magazine, or personally. Even though we haven't met face to face, from your letters, I get to know you and understand your problems.

I'm always happy to be able to help all of you — by giving you answers to specific questions about training and nutrition, by encouraging you when you feel down, and by serving as living proof that the Weider Bodybuilding Lifestyle really works!

Joe and I believe so deeply in health and fitness that we can't help but want to share our philosophy. Naturally, we're overjoyed when we can help someone, and that's why we were so thrilled when I received the following letter. I'm sure you'll find this letter inspiring, too.

Dear Betty,

You probably don't remember me; I wrote to you in August of '86, really feeling sorry for myself. My husband had been gone for a while, pulling 12 months military duty in Korea. I told you that when he left I had weighed 219 pounds (and at five feet, that was obese!) and how I had started a walking program and lost 36pounds. But I also complained about the insults I was getting on my daily walks. I was even considering giving up my goals. I wanted to lose as much weight as I could to surprise my husband when he returned, but still I was ready to call it quits.

You were kind enough to write back and, thanks to you, Betty, I got my priorities straight. You said that I should try to change my attitude toward the people from whom I got insults. You told me that since these people were strangers and had no real place in my life (that I would probably never even meet them), then why should I let them spoil something which could be so joyful and fulfilling to both my husband and myself.

You were right. I took your advice and persevered with my daily walks and dieting. I also bought a stationary bike from Weider Health & Fit-continued on page 168)




Janice Ragain Champion Bodybuilder




"Did you know that when calcium and iron are taken together they biochemically interfere with each other? That's why Aerobi-Cal keeps them in separate parts of its three-stage system. Here's how it works: BETWEEN MEALS: STAGE ONE WITH IRON "Tablet one provides the iron active women need— for efficient oxygen transportation and to help our bodies cope with stressful and strenuous activity. But there's more: Vitamin C to enhance iron absorption, and vitamin B6, a factor in the building of hemoglobin.


"Tablet two and three gives us calcium for

skeletal strength, healthy connective tissues and

effective muscle contractions, plus vitamin D,

which promotes better calcium absorption.

"Tablet four contains inositol and choline, two lipo-

ropic metabolites that assure proper fat metabolism

in the liver.


"Tablet five provides us with magnesium and manganese. Magnesium helps prevent muscular cramps and weakness. Manganese helps our bodies metabolize oxygen. Because calcium and iron can decrease the body's ability to retain magnesium and manganese—and because so many women bodybuilders use diuretics which can deplete them—adding these vital minerals to Aerobi-Cal was a very smart step. "Only Aerobi-Cal goes to these lengths to help protect our health and bodybuilding future!"


JOE WEIDER Trainer of Champions'




With Fat-Metabolizing

Lipotropics And

Synergistic Vitamins

And Minerals!







Medical Side Effects Of Steroids

By Jeff Everson

The newspaper headline conjured up images of National Lampoon magazine. It read, "Bosworth says, 'I used steroids to be as healthy as can be.' " Say what? The "Boz," Oklahoma Sooner, hero and all-American linebacker, was ruminating over his Orange Bowl disqualification due to his past use of an anabolic steroid, namely, Deca-Durabolin.

Healthy? Wasn't Brian Bosworth yanked for using steroids, the killer drugs, the ones that make you sterile and give you liver cancer? Yeah, the same. In his defense, Bosworth maintained that a physician had prescribed steroids to help rehabilitate his chronically sore shoulders, an afflication well known to linebackers. Not only was his medicine doctor-prescribed, but it was administered some 10 months earlier.

One wonders,'though, about the trade-off. Healthy shoulders in exchange for sterility or cancer? Not long after Bosworth made his statements, more than a few physicians responded. The general consensus? Doctors don't prescribe steroids for rehabilitation of any type, especially to healthy athletes. Steroids are prescribed in select medical cases, such as the use of Oxymethe-lone for Fanconi's anemia. Occasionally, doctors prescribe corticosteroids, which are not forbidden, to stem inflammation. Not only are steroids not indicated for general rehabilitation, they have loads of unfavorable side effects.

In the January 26 issue of Sports Illustrated, Dr. Howard Nay, associate clinical professor of surgery at the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, said about anabolic steroids: "The list of complications after using anabolic steroids is frightening and should serve as warnings for all but the foolish or suicidal."

He mentioned risks such as, "development of liver tumors and cholestatic jaundice leading to liver necrosis and death, reports of increased low density lipoproteins associated with arteriosclerosis and coronary heart disease, insomnia, depression, inhibition of testicular function, testicular atrophy, impotence and baldness." Nay concluded that one could only have complete

contempt for doctors prescribing steroids to athletes.

Fact is, most athletes who use steroids don't get them through physicians. Most don't even go to a physician for periodic checkups. Some users don't care what happens to the insides of their bodies.

In Bosworth's defense, he reflects a

common attitude of many steroid-

(Continued on page 161)

Many athletes are lucky and escape serious damage from short-term use of steroids. Some aren't as lucky. The big dangers with steroids, though, are the potential problems from extended use. Medicine continues to gather evidence to substantiate this.

Muscle & Fitness     2

As seen on National T.V.

Lou Ferrigno says...

Lift one extra ounce a day!

Inaedible as it may seem, just one serving   with skimmed milk provides you with as

of Joe Weider's Dynamic Muscle Builder

Serving Suggestion

much protein as a T-Bone Steak*! You'll also get vitamins, minerals and free-fonn amino acids with virtually no fats or cholesterol!

So next time, before you lift your limit, lift one extra ounce of Dynamic Muscle Builder. That's what Lou does!

Dynamic Muscle Builder is available at leading health food and sporting goods stores throughout the U.S. and Canada.


•Approx. 3 oz. uncooked wt. Source: The Vitamin Bible

America's Total Fitness Company1



MUSCLES EXERCISED Flexor Digitorum Longus - Soleus

Tibialis Posterior (Tendon)

Flexor Hallucis Longus (Tendon)

Peroneus Longus

Peroneus Brevis

Illustrations by Kira Od



and the extensor digitorum longus muscles on the lateral sides of the lower legs. Placing your feet wider (or narrower) will also bring in different muscle actions and give more all-round development.

4) The seated calf raise is an excellent exercise for development of the soleus. Because it is a very strong muscle, you can use heavy weights. Keep in mind that the soleus and gastroc-

nemius together can exert over 1,000 pounds of force. However, this does not mean that you can raise this amount; other factors are involved. Do not start with extremely heavy weights. Start slowly and gradually increase the amount of weight you use.

5) Because only the sole